Monday, 22 October, 2018

USDA ARS Online Magazine Vol. 51, No. 10

USDA ARS Online Magazine Vol. 51, No. 10 USDA ARS Online Magazine Vol. 51, No. 10
Ellis Copeland | 22 September, 2017, 07:00

The vineyard continued from its epicenter near Brooksville to the north and south-showing that it could withstand ecological conditions ranging from tropical to temperate. Over the past 7 years, it has been reported throughout Florida, from Tampa north to the panhandle. Skunk was also found in North and South Carolina and Georgia in the late 1990s and recently in Texas and Louisiana.

In a 1999 study by the University of Florida-Gainesville's Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, the estimated cost of manually removing skunk vine from a moderately infested area was $ 4,006 per acre (or $ 1,622 / hectare). Cost estimates for herbicide applications to moderate infestation (33.6 vines per square meter) were $ 1,593 per acre ($ 645 / ha). Enlisting Foreign Recruits

This past summer, Pemberton focused on the plant's native range in Japan and Nepal as possible sources of insect biological control agents that might curb P. foetida in Florida and Hawaii.

In June 2002, Pemberton and Pratt traveled to the island of Kyushu in Japan to work for 10 days with entomologists from Kyushu University, conducting surveys to see what insects feed on skunk vine. That same month, they surveyed skunk vine for 2 weeks in and around Tokyo with the help of entomologists from Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Pemberton and Min Rayamajhi, an ARS plant pathologist at the Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, went to Nepal to conduct additional surveys for natural enemies of skunk vine in the Kathmandu Valley for 3 weeks in August 2002. While in Nepal they discovered an iridescent chrysomelid leaf beetle that feeds on the leaves of skunk vine both as larva and an adult and appeared to be related to the chrysomelid beetle that successfully controlled klamath weed (St. John's wort), Hypericum perforatum, during the 1950s and 1960s.

Despite the exotic locales, "These trips are hardly a vacation," says Pemberton, who is mainly responsible for the foreign exploration. "We're very busy."

During surveys, Pemberton and Pratt set up cultures of insects collected during the day and tended them at night to evaluate feeding habits. The scientists also reared immature insects to adulthood so they could be identified. (Immature insects can be extremely difficult to identify.) They do some of this work at the universities they visit. At other times, they use their hotel rooms.

"It definitely is stinky," says Pemberton of the skunk vine. "If you have cultures you're working on, your hotel room starts to smell." If you're in the business hotel, do not let the biologists stay in. You do not know what they'll bring in, "he jokes Hope, Spelled
FLEA BEETLE

What the two scientists brought back to the United States is hope, in the form of a high-priority candidate biological control agent to combat P. foetida-the flea beetle. They also brought back a lace bug worth evaluation, and many other natural enemies were discovered during the surveys that may be considered for testing and future introduction.

Permanent Assembly of the Peoples of Morelos |
Despite the poverty that surrounded him, he was accepted into the Normal Rural Raúl Isidro Burdos de Ayotzinapa, Guerrero. This 20 year old also worked as a bricklayer assistant in the indigenous community of Amilcingo, Morelos.


Sensory Descriptive Analysis and Free-Choice Profiling of Thirteen Hop Varieties as Whole Cones and After Dry Hopping of Beer.
Dry hopping tends to compress varieties when evaluated for aroma, perhaps indicating a degree of masking by other beer components. Keywords: Aroma, Free choice profiling, Generalized procrustes analysis, Hops


Baroque Poetics and the Logic of Hispanic Exceptionalism [eScholarship]
These three writers present visions of the baroque that do not exclude the Hispanic world but make it an integral part of what it means to be modern.


Of all the critters, it's the fleet beetle, Trachyaphthona sordida, that looks the most promising. These small beetles have big hind legs and easily hop and jump, which is how they got the name "flea beetle." Pemberton and Pratt were fortunate to collect them while in Kyushu. The beetles had not been collected for more than 40 years and appeared to be adults only for a short period during the early summer.

"One important aspect of flea beetle larvae is that they feed on, or 'Mine,' P. foetida roots, "says Pratt, who is working mainly on the release and establishment of potential biocontrol insects. Their consumption of roots and roots hairs limits the ability to absorb water and nutrients. This might cause the plant to die during the dry season.

Testing at the Hawaiian lab will determine what plants the insects tend to feed and develop on to assess potential risks from their use. This flea beetle has been recorded to feed only on skunk vine. Flea beetles are usually very narrow specialists, using only a few species in a group. Since T. sordida is an apparent specialist, and because neither Hawaii nor the continental United States has any economic or native plants that are closely related to skunk vine, the fleet beetle or other skunk vine biological control agents pose virtually no risk to agriculture or the native ecosystems.

But before any insect can be released for biocontrol of skunk vine, the new agent must be tested and scrutinized by committees of federal and state scientists, an environmental assessment must be written, and finally a release

Another insect taken from Japan and placed into quarantine at the Hawaiian lab is a lace bug, Dulinius conchatus, that originated in India. The insect was accidentally introduced in the early 1990s into Japan, where Pemberton and Pratt collected it.

The lace bug was found to damage skunk vine in the area surrounding the old Osaka airport. Pemberton learned about both the lace bug and the beetle in Japanese scientific literature, which he obtained during the 1997 feasibility study of biological control of skunk vine in Japan.

Natural enemies discovered for skunk vine are likely to prove useful against sewer vine, Paederia cruddasiana, a related weed that is becoming a problem in the Miami area.

"We hope that these biocontrol agents can suppress P. foetida sufficiently for the plant to become a minor part of the flora, "says Pratt.

This research is part of Crop Protection and Quarantine, an ARS National Program (# 304) described on the World Wide Web at www.nps.ars.usda.gov.

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